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Systematic Review

EBM Resources


Integrating information from the lower levels of the hiearchy with individual patient records, systems represent the ideal source of evidence for clinical decision-making.  



Summaries are regularly updated clinical guidelines or textbooks that integrate evidence-based information about specific clinical problems. 

Synopses of Syntheses 

Synopses of syntheses, summarize the information found in systematic reviews.  By drawing conclusions from evidence at lower levels of the pyramid, these synopses often provide sufficient information to support clinical action. 


Commonly referred to as a systematic review, a synthesis is a comprehensive summary of all the evidence surrounding a specific research question. 


Synopses of Single Studies 

Synopses of single studies summarize evidence from high-quality studies.   The following evidence-based abstract journals are the best place to find this type of information: 


Single Studies 

Studies represent unique research conducted to answer specific clinical questions. 

Source: The 6S Pyramid - Resources for Evidence-Based Practice - Guides at McMaster University Health Sciences Library ( 

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