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AI - Using and Citing

Articles with one author - Reference list and in-text citations


Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

Iacono, W. G. (1981). The academic job search: The experiences of a new PhD in the job market. Canadian Psychology, 22,  217-227.

Note that the first citation above indicates both a volume and an issue "76(1)" whereas the second citation indicates only an issue "22".  Not all journals have issues within a volume, but the issue number should be included if there is one.


ARTICLES BY ONE AUTHOR: in-text citations (parenthetical and narrative)

One study (Anderson, 2018) found that..

Anderson (2018) found that in higher education...

Articles with two authors - Reference list and in-text citations

ARTICLES BY TWO AUTHORS: in Reference list

Follette, V., & Klesges, R. C. (1988). Academic employment: A longitudinal study of the recruiting process and hired applicants. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 345-348.

Note that the ampersand "&" is used when listing authors in the reference list, not the word "and".  Note also that there is a comma following the period after the initial of the first author and any other author before the ampersand


ARTICLES BY TWO AUTHORS: in-text citations (parenthetical and narrative)

A longitudinal study (Follette & Klesges, 1988) found that applicants...

Follette and Klesges (1988) found that applicants...

Note that in parenthetical citations, the ampersand "&" is used. In narrative citations, the word "and" is used.

Articles with three or more authors - Reference list and in-text citations


Kornienko, O., Davila, M., & Santos, C. E. (2019). Friendship network dynamics of aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(10), 2065-2078.

Individual authors should be listed up to and including 20 authors. If more than 20 authors, list the first 20 authors, followed by "..." , followed by the last author.


ARTICLES BY THREE OR MORE AUTHORS: in-text citations (parenthetical and narrative)

A study on friendship network dynamics (Kornienko et al., 2019) determined that...

Kornienko et al. (2019) determined that...

When there are three or more authors, use only the first author's name followed by "et al." in in-text citations. If there is more than one citation that would appear identical using this method, use the fewest number of names that allows differentiation of the materials being cited.

For example, if Kornienko was the first author on several items published in the same year, each with three or more authors, one would differentiate them by listing as many authors as necessary for the reader to differentiate among them. For example -

Kornienko, Glass et al. (2019) determined that...

A study of adolescent friendship dynamics (Kornienko, Glass et al., 2019) determined that

as compared to

Kornienko, Smith et al. (2019) determined that...

A study of adult friendships (Kornienko, Smith et al., 2019) determined that...

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