Skip to Main Content

AI - Using and Citing

General Notes on APA Citations in Reference Lists

  • The word "References" is centered at the top of the page.
  • The entire page(s) is double-spaced
  • Citations are in alphabetical order by author
  • If more than one citation by same author(s), most recent listed first
  • No first or middle names, initials only
  • Use ampersand "&" in author list
  • Chapter and article titles (minor elements) are NOT italicized
  • Book and journal titles (major elements) ARE italicized
  • Only first word, first word after a colon, proper nouns and acronyms (eg., APA) are capitalized in chapter, article, and book titles
  • JOURNAL TITLES ARE DIFFERENT - ALL MAJOR WORDS are capitalized in addition to the capitalization rules for chapters, articles, and book titles

Generally, authors names are addressed in the same manner regardless of material type, although books are more likely to have editors. In the case where there is an editor(s), the name should be followed by (Ed.) or (Eds.) as appropriate.

In the case of an edition other than the first, the title should be followed by the edition with the period following the edition instead of the title. The edition is NOT italicized, for example - (2nd ed.).

Book chapters are quite different, in that the chapter author(s) may not be the same as the book editors, and page numbers are also included. See examples via the left sidebar.

In addition, there are "corporate authors", such as the American Psychological Association, American Cancer Society, etc. In the case of corporate authorship, the author should be cited as the proper organization name, i.e., American Psychological Association. There are a variety of other authorship types - see the Manual.

DOI's - What are they?

  • DOI stands for "digital object identifier"
  • DOI's allow identification of a specific document. This is particularly useful in the sciences and by government and non-governmental agencies as there may be evolving variations of an article or document and the DOI allows the user to differentiate between various versions
  • Not all publications have DOI's. If there is a DOI, it must be included at the end of the citation. The DOI is a relatively recent development, and does not necessarily indicate that there is more than one version of a document.
Hofstra University

This site is compliant with the W3C-WAI Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY Hempstead, NY 11549-1000 (516) 463-6600 © 2000-2009 Hofstra University