***Please note that many of our databases have citation generators. The citations are machine-generated and sometimes contain errors. When using these generators, you must check your citations against one of the official citation guides to ensure your citations are formatted correctly.
Citation formats (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) may require including the DOI or permalink when citing electronically retrieved eBooks or journal articles. DOIs and permalinks are used to identify digital objects such as articles retrieved from electronic databases regardless of changes in web addresses (URLs). MLA requires that you list the database name in italics followed by the DOI--in MLA you can use the permalink or URL as well but the DOI is preferable. APA does not require you to list the database name. If you cannot find the DOI or permalink you may use the URL.
In some instances, the DOI is posted on the full text version of the article. This makes locating the DOI very easy!
Ebsco databases (ex. OneSearch) provide DOIs and permalinks for digital objects (eBooks and articles). Ebsco will also provide the citation for you. BEWARE: THE FORMATTING IS NOT ALWAYS CORRECT SO YOU DO HAVE TO CHECK IT AGAINST THE CITATION GUIDE.
To find the DOI, locate the entry for your article--you can do a title search in the database. Click on the title link in your result list. The record for your article will pop up. Scroll down until you see the DOI. This is the information to include in your citation.
Or, you can click on the CITE button located on the right of the record screen. You will see a list of citations for the article in various formats. You can scroll the list to see the citation in the format you are using.
You will also see a PERMALINK button located along the right. You can use the permalink if there is no DOI listed.
Here is an example of this article cited in MLA. If you are using a different format you can scroll through the citations to find the appropriate entry.
ProQuest databases (ex. Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, PAIS) provide DOIs for digital objects (eBooks and articles). BEWARE: THE FORMATTING IS NOT ALWAYS CORRECT SO YOU DO HAVE TO CHECK IT AGAINST THE CITATION GUIDE.ProQuest will also provide the citation for you.
To find the DOI, navigate to the entry for your article in the result list (you can do a title search in the database to get there). Click on the Abstract/Details link at the bottom of the entry. (You can click on the title also--that will bring you to the record and you will see a tab for Abstract/Details.). This brings you to the record for the article. Scroll until you see the DOI field.
Notice this is formatted as a complete URL. You can also click on the CITE button in the gray box on the right of the screen. You can scroll until you see the citation in the format you are using. Make sure you use the most current edition of the citation guide.
NexisUni provides the DOI or permalink for both APA and MLA citations. To find the DOI, navigate to the full text of the article you are citing. (Click on the title if you are in your result list). BEWARE: THE FORMATTING OF THE CITATIONS IS NOT ALWAYS CORRECT SO YOU DO HAVE TO CHECK IT AGAINST THE CITATION GUIDE. IN THIS PARTICULAR CITATION THAT WAS GENERATED THE WORD "BY" APPEARS IN FRONT OF THE AUTHOR'S NAME--THAT IS AN ERROR THAT YOU MUST DELETE--THE WORD "BY" IS NEVER INCLUDED IN A CITATION.
There are two ways to find the DOI.
You can click on
From the dropdown menu, choose your preferred citation format.
Click on ACTIONS >>Link to this page
You can then copy/paste the link into your citation
You will likely come across electronic journals and eBooks in other databases as well. The easiest way to find the permalink or DOI is to locate the CITE feature. Most of our databases now will show you how to cite the material and include the DOI or permalink in the citation. The CITE feature is usually located in the record for the item. BEWARE: THE FORMATTING IS NOT ALWAYS CORRECT SO YOU DO HAVE TO CHECK IT AGAINST THE CITATION GUIDE.
Citation styles will often dictate that you use a hanging paragraph when creating full citations. To create a hanging paragraph you must indent the second line of your citation and any lines that follow that.
MS WORD: Highlight your citation. From the HOME tab click on PARAGRAPH. The box that pops open defaults to INDENTS AND SPACING. Use the dropdown menu under SPECIAL and highlight HANGING. Click OK
GOOGLE DOCS: Highlight your citation. Click FORMAT >>> Click ALIGN AND INDENT >>> Click INDENTATION OPTIONS >>> SPECIAL INDENT (HANGING)
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